Hannypoeh's Blog



pada Desember 17, 2011


Disusun Untuk Memenuhi Tugas Mata Kuliah Bahasa Inggris 2

Siti Nur Cahyani, M.Pd

Kelas : S1 PGMI / III A
NIM : 10.209160

TAHUN AKADEMIK 2010 / 2011

a) Definition
Report is a text which persents information about something, as it is. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis.
b) Social Function
To describe the way things are, with reference to arange of natural, man-made and social phenomena in our environment.
c) Generic Structure
 General Classification = tells what the phenomenon under discussion is.
Stating classification of general aspect of thing; animal, public, plant, etc which will be discussed in general.
 Description = tells what the phenomenon under discussion is like in terms of (1) parts, (2) qualities, (3) habits or behaviours if living: uses, if non-natural.
Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail; part per part, customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials.
d) Significant Lexico Gramatical Features
 Focus on Generic Participants.
 Use of Relational Processes to state what it is and that which it is.
 Use of Simple Present Tense (unless extinct).
 No temporal sequence.
 Use of general nouns, relating verbs, action verbs.
e) Examples :
The heart is the most important part of the body. It is center of life. However, the heart is only as big as a closed hand. { GENERAL CLASSIFICATION }
The heart is a muscle and it beats about seventy times per minute throughthout a person’s life. The heart pumps blood from your heart to all parts of your body. The heart is made up of four chamber are called the right and left auriclesand the bottom chambers are the right and left ventricels. { DESCRIPTION }
When blood enters the heart. It is in dark reddish colour because it contains carbondioxide. The blood enters the right auricle and then the right ventricle.
When the heart contracts, it forces the blood to the lungs where the blood receives oxygen. It then goes to the left auricle. The heart contracts again, and the blood goes to the left ventricle and is then forced out into the body. The blood gathers carbondioxide and returns to the heart, an.d the process begins again. { DESCRIPTION }

Mangrove Trees
A mangrove is a tropical marine tree. Mangroves have special aerial roots and salt-filtering tap roots which enable them to thrive in brackish water. Brackish water is salty but not as salty as sea water. Mangrove trees are commonly planted and found in coastal areas. Mangroves can serve as walls of protection for natural disaster in coastal area like tsunami. According to BBC News, healthy mangrove forests had helped save lives in the Asia disaster tsunami and people tended to respect these natural barriers even more, especially after the tsunami. { GENERAL CLASSIFICATION }
There are several species of mangrove tree found all over the world. Some prefer more salinity, while others like to be very-close to a large fresh water source such as river. Some prefer areas that are sheltered from waves. Some species have their roots covered with sea water every day during high tide. Other species grow on dry land but are still part of the ecosystem. The Times of India reported that rare species of mangrove had been found and was also known as the looking-glass tree, probably because the leaves are silver-coated. { DESCRIPTION }
Mangroves need to keep their trunk and leave above the surface of the water. Yet they also need to be firmly attached to the ground so they are not moved by waves. {DESCRIPTION }
Any part of root that appears above the water flows oxygen to the plant under water surface. as the soil begin to build up, these roots procedure additional roots that become embedded in the soil. { DESCRIPTION }
Beach Volleyball
Beach volleyball began in California in 1950. At the time some people who had a vacation at the beach came up with an idea. They put up a piece of rope as a net and played volleyball. Shortly afterwards, many women and men liked to play it. Therefore, in 1985 the Volleyball Federation recognized it, and in the following year it organized an international beach volleyball competition in Rio de Jeneiro, Brazil. { GENERAL CLASSIFICATION }
Beach volleyball and traditional volleyball look the same but actually they are different. What are the similarities and differences between them? The similarities are as follows. Games must be played on the courts of the same size, and they also have nets. The techniques of playing the games are almost the same. Every set of each game consists of 15 points. However, traditional volleyball has more players than beach volleyball. That is, it has 6 players while beach volleyball has only 2 players in each team. Besides, traditional volleyball can be played in a stadium, a sport hall, or anywhere outside. Beach volleyball is only played on the sand at the beach. { DESCRIPTION }
In Indonesia beach volleyball has begun to be more popular and interesting recently. International competitions have been held in several places such as Bali, Lombok, and Jakarta (Ancol). However, it should be introduced and developed further in other areas in Indonesia, especially areas of beautiful beaches like Maluku, Sulawesi, and Irian Jaya. { DESCRIPTION }

a) Definition
Descriptive is a text which say what a person or a thing is like or which lists the characteristics of something.
b) Social Function
To describe a particular person, place or thing.
c) Generic Structure
 Identification = identifies phenomenon to be described.
 Description = describes parts, qualities, characteristics.
d) Significant Lexico Gramatical Features
 Focus on Spesific Participants.
 Use of attribute and identifying processes.
 Frequent use of ephitets and classifiers in nominal groups.
 Use of Simple Present Tense.
 Use of adjective clause, action verbs, technical terms.
 Use passive voice, noun phrase, adverbial phrase
e) Examples :
Dengue Fever
Dengue fever is one the most dangerous diseases in the world. {IDENTIFICATION}
Dengue fever is endemic in most tropical urban areas of the world. It means people in these areas have high risks of infection of the disease. { DESCRIPTION }
Dengue fever is caused by a virus. The virus is transmitted into humans by the bite of infected mosquitos, usually Aedes Aegypti. In other words, the disease cannot be spread directly from person to person. { DESCRIPTION }
The disease is characterized by high fever, severe headache, backache, joint and muscle pains. Sometimes, many patients get nausea, vomiting, and rash on arms, face and legs. There is no spesific treatment of the disease. { DESCRIPTION }

Prambanan Temple
Prambanan is the largest Hindu temple compound in Central Java in Indonesia, located approximately 18 km east of Yogyakarta. { IDENTIFICATION }
The temple is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the largest Hindu temples in south-east Asia. It is characterised by its tall and pointed architecture, typical of Hindu temple architecture, and by the 47m high central building inside a large complex of individual temples. { DESCRIPTION }
It was built around 850 CE by either Rakai Pikatan, king of the second Mataram dynasty, or Balitung Maha Sambu, during the Sanjaya Dynasty. Not long after its construction, the temple was abandoned and began to deteriorate. Reconstruction of the compound began in 1918. The main building was completed in around 1953. Much of the original stonework has been stolen and reused at remote construction sites. A temple will only be rebuilt if at least 75% of the original stones are available, and therefore only the foundation walls of most of the smaller shrines are now visible and with no plans for their reconstruction. { DESCRIPTION }
The temple was damaged during the earthquake in Java in 2006. Early photos suggest that although the complex appears to be structurally intact, damage is significant. Large pieces of debris, including carvings, were scattered over the ground. The temple has been closed to the public until damage can be fully assessed. The head of Yogyakarta Archaeological Conservation Agency stated that: “it will take months to identify the precise damage”. However, some weeks later in 2006 the site re-opened for visitors. The immediate surroundings of the Hindu temples remain off-limits for safety reasons. { DESCRIPTION}

Jatim Park

For people in East Java, Jatim Park may have been heard many times as it is one of the famous tourism object in East Java province. Jatim Park offers a recreation place as well as a study center. { DESCRIPTION }
Jatim Park is located at Jl. Kartika 2 Batu, East Java. To reach the location is not too difficult because the object is only 2, 5 kilos meters from Batu city. This Jatim Park tourism object is about 22 hectares width. { IDENTIFICATION }
Visitor can enjoy at least 36 kinds of facilities which can attract them as well as give new knowledge. Just after the pass gate, the visitors will find an interesting view of ‘Galeri Nusantara’ area. This study offering continues to step on ‘Taman Sejarah’ area, which contains of miniature temple in East Java like Sumberawan temple, customhouse of Kiai Hasan Besari Ponorogo and Sumberawan Statue. { DESCRIPTION }
The other facility which is able to be enjoyed is ‘Agro Park’ area. It presents crop and rareness fruits, animal diorama which consists of unique animals that have been conserved, and supporting games like bowling, throw ball, scooter disco, etc.
Jatim Park is suitable for family and school recreation. The recreation area sites offer precious tour and can used as alternative media of study. { DESCRIPTION }

a) Definition
Narrative is account ( a text ) of events which focusing spesific participants. Narratives deal with problematic events which lead to a crisis or turning point of some kind ( climax), which in turn finds a resolution.
b) Social Function
• To amuse or to entertain.
• To deal with actual or vicarious experience in different ways.
c) Generic Structure
 Orientation = sets the scene and introduces the participants.
 Evaluation = a stepping back to evaluate the plight.
 Complication = a crisis arises.
 Resolution = the crisis is resolved, for better or for worse.
 Re-orientation = optional.
d) Significant Lexico Gramatical Features
 Focus on Spesific and Individualized Particiants.
 Use of material process (action verbs)
 Use some of behavioural and verbal processes.
 Use of relational process and mental process.
 Use of Past Tense
 Use of temporal conjunctions and temporal circumstances.
e) Examples :

A long time ago, there lived a young people, a man and his wife. His wife was expecting their baby. She want a plant that only grew in her neighbor’s garden. She wanted it so much. She even intended to steal it herself, but later on, she sent her husband to steal it. Unfortunately, Mother Gothel, the owner of the garden, caught him doing it. She was a witch. Then,Mother Gothel forced the couple to give their first baby to her.
A few month later, the baby was born. It was a girl and named Rapunzel. Soon, this baby was taken away to live with Mother Gothel. Rapunzel grew to be a beautiful young girl with her long goldy hair. She, at first, was cared in a normal way. When she reached puberty, she was locked in a tower so that she would never leave Mother Gothel. The tower stood in the forest. It could only be entered by climbing on Rapunzel’s long hair. To cheer herself up, she loved to sing. { EVALUATION }
One day, a young prince was out hunting. He stumbled upon the tower. He heard Rapunzel’s beautiful voice. He decided that he must meet her. He spied and, by watching Mother Gothel, learned the words he had to say to have Rapunzel drop her hair. The prince visited her often and the two fell in love. { COMPLICATION }
Then, Rapunzel made a plan to escape from the tower. She wanted to be with the prince. She asked the prince to bring her a skein of silk each time he visited. She might weave a ladder for her escape. Unfortunately, Mother Gothel caught on. Then, she banished Rapunzel to the desert. She threw the prince from the tower into a thorny bush. The thorns made the prince blind and he roamed the earth searching for his love. { COMPLICATION }
Eventually,they found each other, and the prince’s eyes were healed by Rapunzel’s tears of happiness. { RESOLUTION }

Putri Kemuning
Putri Kemuning and her mother lived in a jungle. They were poor. Putri Kemuning helped her mother collect woods in the jungle and sell them to the market. {ORIENTATION }
In the jungle, Putri Kemuning had animal friends. One day, Putri Kemuning’s mother was very ill. Putri Kemuning was very sad because she did not have enough money to buy medicine. She then collected many woods and plans to sell them. She wanted to spend the money to buy medicine. { EVALUATION }
While She was collecting the woods, Putri Kemuning met her animal friend, the rabbit. He was worried because Putri Kemuning looked very sad. Putri Kemuning told the problem to the rabbit. “I can help you. Take this ring and then sell it,” says the rabbit. “Is this your ring?” asked Putri Kemuning. “No. This is the King Ngarancang Kencono’s ring. It fell when he was hunting here.” Putri Kemuning hesitated. She really needed the money but it was not her ring. Finally she said, “No, I have to return this ring to the king.”
Putri Kemuning then went to see the king at his palace. “What is your name and what is your purpose here?” said the king. “My name is Putri Kemuning. I want to return your ring,” said Putri Kemuning. “Thank you very much. Now, I want to give you something. What do you want?” “I don’t anything. I just want to go home. My mother is very ill,” replied Putri Kemuning. “You are a very kind girl. Now, take this gift,” said the king.
Putri Kemuning went home. When she arrived, Putri Kemuning told her mother about the king’s ring. Her mother was very proud of her. When they opened the gift, they saw a bag full of gold coins. They were very happy because they can buy medicine. { RESOLUTION }

The Beauty and The Beast
Once upon a time, there was a girl named Beauty. She lived with her father and her sisters in a small village. { ORIENTATION }
Beauty was a beautiful girl. She was also hard-working. She always helped her father on the farm. { EVALUATION }
One day, her father set out for the city. He saw an old castle and went in. No-one was in but there was food on the table. Then he walked around the castle. He picked a rose from garden for Beauty. Suddenly an angry Beast appeared. He wanted to kill Beauty’s father unless Beauty was brought to him. Beauty’s father told her daughters what had happened. Beauty’s sisters ordered her to see the Beast. { COMPLICATION }
Beauty went to see the Beast and had to stay at the castle. She felt scared, lonely and sad. She tried to run away but was stopped by the Beast. The Beast treated Beauty well. Soon, Beauty began to like the Beast. { COMPLICATION }
One day, through the Beast’s magic mirror, Beauty saw that her father was sick. The Beast allowed her to go home. Her father was happy to see her.One night, Beauty had a dream. A fairly told her that the Beast was sick.Beauty hurried back and saw the Beast dying. She began to cry. Tears fell onto the Beast. Suddenly, the Beast changed into handsome prince. { COMPLICATION }
Beauty and the Beast got married and lived happily ever after. { RESOLUTION }

a) Definition
Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past.
There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative.
b) Social Function
To retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event.
c) Generic Structure
 Orientation = Introducing the participants, place and time.
 Events = Describing series of event that happened in the past.
 Reorientation = It is optional.
Stating personal comment of the writer to the story.
d) Significant Lexico Gramatical Features
 Introduce personal participant; I, my group, etc.
 Use chronological connection; then, first, etc.
 Use of linking verb; was, were, saw, heard, etc.
 Use of action verb; look, go, change, etc.
 Use of Simple Past Tense.
 Focus on temporal sequence.

e) Examples :
A Visit to a Sheep Property
Last holidays I visited a sheep property. I helped in the shearing sheds and in the yards. { ORIENTATION }
On the first day the Merino wethers were crutched. I helped by sweeping up after the rouseabout picked up the wool pieces. Shearers start early (at 7.30 am). After lunch, we started shearing the lambs. There were more than 400 so we didn’t finish until the next day. Once again I was sweeping and picking up dags. { EVENTS }
I was tired by the end of the day in the shed but our work wasn’t finished. We all had to help to get the wethers and lambs back into the paddocks. As well, we had to get a mob of ewes and their lambs into the yards for shearing the next day. Then it was time for tea (that’s what my nanna calls dinner). { EVENTS }
This was a very long day but I enjoyed it a lot. { RE-ORIENTATION}

Holiday at Anyer Beach
At the end of first semester, there was holiday which was very long about two weeks. Previously, I was just thinking about my study, because on the next semester would be held an hard examination. But, I changed my mind to take refreshing at the beach, which had I could get many happiness. Because, if I just studying and studying, it would be possible if I would get stressed. { ORIENTATION }
As soon, I called my friend and asked him where we will go at this holiday. So, my friend had an idea that we will go to Anyer Beach. So we called other friends and invited them to go together. And I was very happy because, other friends came too. So, we planned our departure to go to Anyer Beach. And it had been decision. The day was Monday until Tuesday. { EVENTS }
On Monday, we had been ready to go to Anyer beach. When we arrived at Anyer Beach, I was very fresh and enjoyed the scene. Playing with the sand and water beach was very happy. We stayed at the hotel for tow days one night. { EVENTS }
We enjoyed our holiday at this time. But, we didn’t forget the examination either.

My Adventure at Leang-Leang Cave
On Sunday, my parents, my best friend Novi, and I visited a cave at Maros called Leang-leang. It was my first time to visit the cave, better yet, my best friend came to visit it with me! {ORIENTATION }
The cave was famous for its primitive cave wall paintings which were some hand prints and wild boar paintings. The cave and its surroundings was turned into a national park, so it was taken care of. My parents took a rest in a small hut for visitors of the park, while Novi and I adventured around the cave with a guide. We had to climb some metal stairs to get to the cave, because the cave was embedded into a small mountain. Next stop was a place where some seashells littered the ground and some were actually piled into a big mound! The guide said that these piles of seashells are called kjokkenmoddinger, or kitchen trash. The humans who lived here ate the shells and dumped the left overs in their ‘kitchen’.
The last place was a small museum where they have skeletons of the humans who lived in the caves. The skeletons along with some roughly made jewelry and weapons were placed inside glass cases for display. The walls of the museum were adorned with photographs taken when they did an excavation there. { EVENTS }
After a quick lunch with Novi and my parents, we decided it was time to go back home. We really had the time of our lives! { RE-ORIENTATION}

a) Definition
Procedure is a text which describes that something is accomplished through a series of steps or a sequence of actions.
b) Social Function
To help readers how to do or make something completely.
c) Generic Structure
 Goal = showing the purpose.
 Material = Telling the needed materials.
 Steps = Describing the steps to achieve the purpose.
d) Significant Lexico Gramatical Features
 Use of temporal conjunction.
 Using action verb.
 Use of imperative sentence.
 Use of Simple Present Tense.
e) Examples :
Goal : How To Make Peanut Crunch

Materials :
* v 1 cup of peanuts
* v 3 cups of brown sugar
* v 2 tablespoons of vinegar
* v 1 cup of water
Steps :
– Place the sugar, water and vinegar into a large saucepan.
– Stir slowly over a low heat until the sugar is disolved.
– Add peanuts , increase the heat and allow to boil.
– Remove from the heat when the nuts have craked and the mixture appears golden brown.
– Allow bubbles to settle.
– Spoon into small paper patty cases or pour the mixture into a flat greased pan and mark into bite-size pieces.
– Makes enough Peanut Crunch for six people.

Goal : How To Make Meatballs
Materials :
*1 kilo of very fine minced meat ( preferably beef)
* 2 eggs
* 300 grams of tapioca-flour
* 4-8 cloves of garlic
*1 red onion
*1 teaspoon of white pepper
*2 teaspoons of salt
Steps :
– First of all, mix garlic, red onion, salt, and white pepper in a mortar or mixer.
– Second step, mix the spice-mixture with the eggs, the tapioca-flour and the minced meat.
– After that, use your fingers, add a cup of water, and keep on working until the mixture feels soft and smooth.
– Then, boil some water in a rather large pot, at least about 2 liters.
– Next step, start rolling the mixture into small meatballs.
– Finally, lower the meatballs into the boiling water. When they float up to the surface the meatball are ready to serve.
Goal : How to Charge Handphone Battery

Materials :
* hand phone
* battery charger

Steps :
– Connect the charger to your hand phone, the flash symbol on the charger plug must face upward.
– Wait until the battery icon appears on the screen.
– Charge the battery approximately 5 hours or until the battery icon indicates that the battery is fully charged.
– Remove the charger by pulling out from your hand phone.


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